# Planet Debian

Planet Debian - https://planet.debian.org/
Updated: 1 hour 53 min ago

3 hours 8 min ago

So, it has been a busy week of Qt and KDE hacking in the beautiful city of Vienna.
Besides getting quite some of the Viennese staple food, schnitzel, it was an interesting adventure of getting smarter.

• Getting smarter about making sure what happens in North Korea doesn’t stay in North Korea
• Getting smarter about what is up with this newfangled Wayland technology and how KDE uses it
• Getting smarter about how to Konquer the world and welcoming new contributors
• Getting smarter about opensource licensing compliance
• Getting smarter about KItinerary, the opensource travel assistant
• Getting smarter about TNEF, a invitation transport format that isn’t that neutral
• Getting smarter about Yocto, automotive and what KDE can do

And lots of other stuff.

Besides getting smarter, also getting to talk to people about what they do and to write some patches are important events.
I also wrote some code. Here is a highlight:

And a lot of other minor things, including handling a couple of Debian bugs.

What I’m hoping to either put to my own todolist, or preferably others, is

I felt productive, welcome and … ready to sleep for a week.

### Louis-Philippe Véronneau: Montreal's Debian & Stuff - August 2018

18 August, 2018 - 11:00

Summer is slowly coming to an end in Montreal and as much as I would like it to last another month, I'm also glad to fall back into my regular routine.

Part of that routine means the return of Montreal's Debian & Stuff - our informal gathering of the local Debian community!

If you are in Montreal on August 26th, come and say hi: everyone's welcome!

Some of us plan to work on specific stuff (I want to show people how nice the Tomu boards I got are) - but hanging out and having a drink is also a perfectly reasonable option.

Here's a link to the event's page.

17 August, 2018 - 19:00

A new RcppArmadillo release 0.9.100.5.0, based on the new Armadillo release 9.100.5 from earlier today, is now on CRAN and in Debian.

It once again follows our (and Conrad's) bi-monthly release schedule. Conrad started with a new 9.100.* series a few days ago. I ran reverse-depends checks and found an issue which he promptly addressed; CRAN found another which he also very promptly addressed. It remains a true pleasure to work with such experienced professionals as Conrad (with whom I finally had a beer around the recent useR! in his home town) and of course the CRAN team whose superb package repository truly is the bedrock of the R community.

Armadillo is a powerful and expressive C++ template library for linear algebra aiming towards a good balance between speed and ease of use with a syntax deliberately close to a Matlab. RcppArmadillo integrates this library with the R environment and language--and is widely used by (currently) 479 other packages on CRAN.

This release once again brings a number of improvements to the sparse matrix functionality. We also fixed one use case of the OpemMP compiler and linker flags which will likely hit a number of the by now 501 (!!) CRAN packages using RcppArmadillo.

Changes in RcppArmadillo version 0.9.100.5.0 (2018-08-16)

• faster handling of symmetric/hermitian positive definite matrices by solve()

• faster handling of inv_sympd() in compound expressions

• expanded spsolve() to optionally allow keeping solutions of systems singular to working precision

• new configuration options ARMA_OPTIMISE_SOLVE_BAND and ARMA_OPTIMISE_SOLVE_SYMPD smarter use of the element cache in sparse matrices

• smarter use of the element cache in sparse matrices

• Aligned OpenMP flags in the RcppArmadillo.package.skeleton used Makevars,.win to not use one C and C++ flag.

Courtesy of CRANberries, there is a diffstat report relative to previous release. More detailed information is on the RcppArmadillo page. Questions, comments etc should go to the rcpp-devel mailing list off the R-Forge page.

Edited on 2018-08-17 to correct one sentence (thanks, Barry!) and adjust the RcppArmadillo to 501 (!!) as we crossed the threshold of 500 packages overnight.

This post by Dirk Eddelbuettel originated on his Thinking inside the box blog. Please report excessive re-aggregation in third-party for-profit settings.

### Sune Vuorela: Invite me to your meetings

17 August, 2018 - 15:39

I was invited by my boss to a dinner. He uses exchange or outlook365 or something like that. The KMail TNEF parser didn’t succeed in parsing all the info, so I’m kind of trying to fix it.

But I need test data. That I can add to the repoository for unit tests.

So if you can help me generate test data, please setup a meeting and invite me. publicinvites@sune.vuorela.dk

Just to repeat. The data will be made public.

17 August, 2018 - 08:20

A new RcppArmadillo release 0.9.100.5.0, based on the new Armadillo release 9.100.5 from earlier today, is now on CRAN and in Debian.

It once again follows our (and Conrad's) bi-monthly release schedule. Conrad started with a new 9.100.* series a few days ago. I ran reverse-depends checks and found an issue which he promptly addressed; CRAN found another which he also very promptly addressed. It remains a true pleasure to work with such experienced professionals as Conrad (with whom I finally had a beer around the recent useR! in his home town) and of course the CRAN team whose superb package repository truly is the bedrock of the R community.

Armadillo is a powerful and expressive C++ template library for linear algebra aiming towards a good balance between speed and ease of use with a syntax deliberately close to a Matlab. RcppArmadillo integrates this library with the R environment and language--and is widely used by (currently) 479 other packages on CRAN.

This release once again brings a number of improvements to the sparse matrix functionality. We also also one use case of the OpemMP compiler and linker flags which will likely hit a number of the by now 499 (!!) CRAN packages using RcppArmadillo.

Changes in RcppArmadillo version 0.9.100.5.0 (2018-08-16)

• faster handling of symmetric/hermitian positive definite matrices by solve()

• faster handling of inv_sympd() in compound expressions

• expanded spsolve() to optionally allow keeping solutions of systems singular to working precision

• new configuration options ARMA_OPTIMISE_SOLVE_BAND and ARMA_OPTIMISE_SOLVE_SYMPD smarter use of the element cache in sparse matrices

• smarter use of the element cache in sparse matrices

• Aligned OpenMP flags in the RcppArmadillo.package.skeleton used Makevars,.win to not use one C and C++ flag.

Courtesy of CRANberries, there is a diffstat report relative to previous release. More detailed information is on the RcppArmadillo page. Questions, comments etc should go to the rcpp-devel mailing list off the R-Forge page.

This post by Dirk Eddelbuettel originated on his Thinking inside the box blog. Please report excessive re-aggregation in third-party for-profit settings.

### Steve McIntyre: 25 years...

17 August, 2018 - 04:42

We had a small gathering in the Haymakers pub tonight to celebrate 25 years since Ian Murdock started the Debian project.

We had 3 DPLs, a few other DDs and a few more users and community members! Good to natter with people and share some history. :-) The Raspberry Pi people even chipped in for some drinks. Cheers! The celebrations will continue at the big BBQ at my place next weekend.

### Steinar H. Gunderson: Solskogen 2018: Tireless wireless (a retrospective)

17 August, 2018 - 03:00

These days, Internet access is a bit like oxygen—hard to get excited about, but living without it can be profoundly annoying. With prevalent 4G coverage and free roaming within the EU, the need for wifi in the woods has diminished somewhat, but it's still important for computers (bleep bloop!), and even more importantly, streaming.

As Solskogen's stream wants 5 Mbit/sec out of the party place (we reflect it outside, where bandwidth is less scarce), we were a bit dismayed when we arrived a week before the party for pre-check and discovered that the Internet access from the venue was capped at 5/0.5. After some frenzied digging, we discovered the cause: Since Solskogen is the only event at Flateby that uses the Internet much, they have reverted to the cheapest option except in July—and that caused us to eventually being relegated to an ADSL line card in the DSLAM, as opposed to the VDSL we've had earlier (which gave us 50/10). Even worse, with a full DSLAM, the change back would take weeks. We needed a plan B.

The obvious first choice would be 4G, but it's not a perfect match; just the stream alone would be 150+ GB (although it can be reduced or turned off when there's nothing happening on the big screen), and it's not the only thing that wants bandwidth. In other words, it would have a serious cost issue, and then there was the question to what degree it could deliver rock-stable streaming or not. There would be the option to use multiple providers and/or use the ADSL line for non-prioritized traffic (ie., participant access), but in the end, it didn't look so attractive, so we filed this as plan C and moved on to find another B.

Plan B eventually materialized in the form of the Ubiquiti Litebeam M5, a ridiculously cheap (\$49 MSRP!) point-to-point link based on a somewhat tweaked Wi-Fi chipset. The idea was to get up on the roof (køb min fisk!), shoot to somewhere else with better networking and then use that link for everything. Øyafestivalen, by means of Daniel Husand, borrowed us a couple of M5s on short notice, and off we went to find trampolines on Google Maps. (For the uninitiated, trampolines = kids = Internet access.)

We considered the home of a fellow demoscener living nearby—at 1.4 km, it's well within the range of the M5 (we know of deployments running over 17 km).. However, the local grocery store in Flateby, Spar, managed to come up with something even more interesting; it turns out that behind the store, more or less across the street, there's a volunteer organization called Frivillighetssentralen that were willing to borrow out their 20/20 fiber Internet from Viken Fiber. Even better, after only a quick phone call, the ISP was more than willing to boost the line to 200/200 for the weekend. (The boost would happen Friday or so, so we'd run most of our testing with 20/20, but even that would be plenty.)

After a trip up on the roof of the party place, we decided approximately where to put the antenna, and put one of the M5s in the window of Frivillighetssentralen pointing roughly towards that spot. In a moment of hubris, we decided to try without going up on the roof again, just holding the other M5 out of the window, pointed it roughly in the right directoin… and lo and behold, it synced on 150 Mbit/sec both ways, reporting a distance of 450 meters. (This was through another house that was in the way, ie., no clear path. Did we mention the M5s are impossibly good for the price?)

So, after mounting it on the wall, we started building the rest of the network. Having managed switches everywhere paid off; instead of having to pull a cable from the wireless to the central ARM machine (an ODROID XU4) running as a router, we could just plug it into the closest participant switch and configure the ports. I'm aware that most people would consider VLANs overkill for a 200-person network, but it really helps in flexibility when something unexpected happens—and also in terms of cable.

However, as the rigging progressed and we started getting to the point where we could run test streams, it became clear that something was wrong. The Internet link just wasn't pushing the amount of bandwidth we wanted it to; in particular, the 5 Mbit/sec stream just wouldn't go through. (In parallel, we also had some problems with access points refusing to join the wireless controller, which turned out to be a faulty battery that caused the clock on the WLC to revert to year 2000, which in turn caused its certificate to be invalid. If we'd had Internet at that stage, it would have had NTP and never seen the problem, but of course, we didn't because we were still busy trying to figure out the best place on the roof at the time!)

Of course, frantic debugging ensued. We looked through every setting we could find on the M5s, we moved them to a spot with clear path and pointed them properly at each other (bringing the estimated link up to 250 Mbit/sec) and upgraded their software to the latest version. Nothing helped at all.

Eventually, we started looking elsewhere in our network. We run a fairly elaborate shaping and tunneling setup; this allows us to be fully in control over relative bandwidth prioritization, both ways (the stream really gets dedicated 5 Mbit/sec, for example), but complexity can also be scary when you're trying to debug. TCP performance can also be affected by multiple factors, and then of course, there's the Internet on its way. We tried blasting UDP at the other end full speed, which the XU4 would police down to 13 Mbit/sec, accurate to two decimals, for us (20 Mbit uplink, minus 5 for the stream, minus some headroom)—but somehow, the other end only received 12. Hmm. We reduced the policer to 12 Mbit/sec, and only got 11… what the heck?

At this point, we understood we had a packet loss problem on our hands. It would either be the XU4s or the M5s; something dropped 10% or so of all packets, indiscriminately. Again, the VLANs helped; we could simply insert a laptop on the right VLAN and try to send traffic outside of the XU4. We did so, and after some confusion, we figured out it wasn't that. So what was wrong with the M5s?

It turns out the latest software version has iperf built-in; you can simply ssh to the box and run from there. We tried the one on the ISP side; it got great TCP speeds to the Internet. We tried the one on the local side; it got… still great speeds! What!?

So, after six hours of debugging, we found the issue; there was a faulty Cat5 cable between two switches in the hall, that happened to be on the path out to the inner M5. Somehow it got link at full gigabit, but it caused plenty of dropped packets—I've never seen this failure mode before, and I sincerely hope we'll never be seeing it again. We replaced the cable, and tada, Internet.

Next week, we'll talk about how the waffle irons started making only four hearts instead of five, and how we traced it to a poltergeist that we brought in a swimming pool when we moved from Ås to Flateby five years ago.

### Bdale Garbee: Mixed Emotions On Debian Anniversary

17 August, 2018 - 00:26

When I woke up this morning, my first conscious thought was that today is the 25th anniversary of a project I myself have been dedicated to for nearly 24 years, the Debian GNU/Linux distribution. I knew it was coming, but beyond recognizing the day to family and friends, I hadn't really thought a lot about what I might do to mark the occasion.

Before I even got out of bed, however, I learned of the passing of Aretha Franklin, the Queen of Soul. I suspect it would be difficult to be a caring human being, born in my country in my generation, and not feel at least some impact from her mere existence. Such a strong woman, with amazing talent, whose name comes up in the context of civil rights and women's rights beyond the incredible impact of her music. I know it's a corny thing to write, but after talking to my wife about it over coffee, Aretha really has been part of "the soundtrack of our lives". Clearly, others feel the same, because in her half-century-plus professional career, "Ms Franklin" won something like 18 Grammy awards, the Presidential Medal of Freedom, and other honors too numerous to list. She will be missed.

What's the connection, if any, between these two? In 2002, in my platform for election as Debian Project Leader, I wrote that "working on Debian is my way of expressing my most strongly held beliefs about freedom, choice, quality, and utility." Over the years, I've come to think of software freedom as an obvious and important component of our broader freedom and equality. And that idea was strongly reinforced by the excellent talk Karen Sandler and Molly de Blanc gave at Debconf18 in Taiwan recently, in which they pointed out that in our modern world where software is part of everything, everything can be thought of as a free software issue!

So how am I going to acknowledge and celebrate Debian's 25th anniversary today? By putting some of my favorite Aretha tracks on our whole house audio system built entirely using libre hardware and software, and work to find and fix at least one more bug in one of my Debian packages. Because expressing my beliefs through actions in this way is, I think, the most effective way I can personally contribute in some small way to freedom and equality in the world, and thus also the finest tribute I can pay to Debian... and to Aretha Franklin.

### Bits from Debian: 25 years and counting

16 August, 2018 - 13:50

When the late Ian Murdock announced 25 years ago in comp.os.linux.development, "the imminent completion of a brand-new Linux release, [...] the Debian Linux Release", nobody would have expected the "Debian Linux Release" to become what's nowadays known as the Debian Project, one of the largest and most influential free software projects. Its primary product is Debian, a free operating system (OS) for your computer, as well as for plenty of other systems which enhance your life. From the inner workings of your nearby airport to your car entertainment system, and from cloud servers hosting your favorite websites to the IoT devices that communicate with them, Debian can power it all.

Today, the Debian project is a large and thriving organization with countless self-organized teams comprised of volunteers. While it often looks chaotic from the outside, the project is sustained by its two main organizational documents: the Debian Social Contract, which provides a vision of improving society, and the Debian Free Software Guidelines, which provide an indication of what software is considered usable. They are supplemented by the project's Constitution which lays down the project structure, and the Code of Conduct, which sets the tone for interactions within the project.

Every day over the last 25 years, people have sent bug reports and patches, uploaded packages, updated translations, created artwork, organized events about Debian, updated the website, taught others how to use Debian, and created hundreds of derivatives.

Here's to another 25 years - and hopefully many, many more!

### Norbert Preining: DebConf 18 – Day 3

16 August, 2018 - 07:46

Most of Japan is on summer vacation now, only a small village in the north resists the siege, so I am continuing my reports on DebConf. See DebConf 18 – Day 1 and DebConf 18 – Day 2 for the previous ones.

With only a few talks of interest for me in the morning, I spent the time preparing my second presentation Status of Japanese (and CJK) typesetting (with TeX in Debian) during the morning, and joined for lunch and the afternoon session.

First to attend was the Deep Learning BoF by Mo Zou. Mo reported on the problems of getting Deep Learning tools into Debian: Here not only the pure software, where proprietary drivers for GPU acceleration are often highly advisable, but also the data sets (pre-trained data) which often fall under a non-free license, pose problems with integration into Debian. With several deep learning practitioners around, we had a lively discussion how to deal with all this.

Next up was Markus Koschany with Debian Java, where he gave an overview on the packaging tools for Java programs and libraries, and their interaction with the Java build tools like Maven, Ant, and Gradle.

After the coffee break I gave my talk about Status of Japanese (and CJK) typesetting (with TeX in Debian), and I must say I was quite nervous. As a non CJK-native foreigner speaking about the intricacies of typesetting with Kanji was a bit a challenge. At the end I think it worked out quite well, and I got some interesting questions after the talk.

Last for today was Nathan Willis’ presentation Rethinking font packages—from the document level down. With design, layout, and fonts being close to my personal interests, too, this talk was one of the highlights for me. Starting from a typical user’s workflow in selecting a font set for a specific project, Nathan discussed the current situation of fonts in Linux environment and Debian, and suggested improvements. Unfortunately what would be actually needed is a complete rewrite of the font stack, management, system organization etc, a rather big task at hand.

After the group photo shot by Aigars Mahinovs who also provided several more photos and a relaxed dinner I went climbing with Paul Wise to a nearby gym. It was – not surprisingly – quite humid and warm in the gym, so the amount of sweat I lost was considerable, but we had some great boulders and a fun time. In addition to that, I found a very nice book, nice out of two reasons: first, it was about one of my (and my daughters – seems to be connected) favorite movies, Totoro by Miyazaki Hayao, and second, it was written in Taiwanese Mandarin with some kind of Furigana to aid reading for kids – something that is very common in Japan (even in books for adults in case of rare readings), but I have never seen before with Chinese. The proper name is Zhùyīn Zìmǔ 註音字母 or (or more popular) Bopomofo.

This interesting and long day finished in my hotel with a cold beer to compensate for the loss of minerals during climbing.

### Enrico Zini: DebConf 18

14 August, 2018 - 20:08

This is a quick recap of what happened during my DebConf 18.

24 July:

• after buying a new laptop I didn't set up a build system for Debian on it. I finally did it, with cowbuilder. It was straightforward to set up and works quite fast.
• shopping for electronics. Among other things, I bought myself a new USB-C power supply that I can use for laptop and phone, and now I can have a power supply for home and one always in my backpack for traveling. I also bought a new pair of headphones+microphone, since I cannot wear in-ear, and I only had the in-ear ones that came with my phone.
• while trying out the new headphones, I unexpectedly started playing loud music in the hacklab. I then debugged audio pin mapping on my new laptop and reported #904437
• fixed debtags.debian.org nightly maintenance scripts, which have been mailing me errors for a while.

25 July:

26 July:

• I needed to debug a wreport FTBFS on a porterbox, and since the procedure to set up a build system on a porterbox was long and boring, I wrote debug-on-porterbox
• Fixed a wreport FTBFS and replaced it with another FTBFS, that I still haven't managed to track down.

27 July:

• worked on multiple people talk notes, alone and with Rhonda
• informal FD/DAM brainstorming with jmw
• local antiharassment coordination with Tassia and Taowa
• talked to ansgar about how to have debtags tags reach ftp-master automatically, without my manual intervention
• watched a wonderful lunar eclipse

28 July:

• implemented automatic export of debtags data for ftp-master
• local anti-harassment team work

29 July:

30 July:

31 July:

• Implemented F-Droid antifeatures as privacy:: Debtags tags

01 August:

• Day trip and barbecue

02 August:

03 August:

• Multiple People talk
• Debug Boot of my laptop with UEFI with Steve, and found out that HP firmware updates for it can only be installed using Windows. I am really disappointed with HP for this, given it's a rather high-end business laptop.

04 August:

### Reproducible builds folks: Reproducible Builds: Weekly report #172

14 August, 2018 - 13:17

Here’s what happened in the Reproducible Builds effort between Sunday August 5 and Saturday August 11 2018:

Packages reviewed and fixed, and bugs filed
diffoscope development

There were a handful of updates to diffoscope, our in-depth “diff-on-steroids” utility which helps us diagnose reproducibility issues in packages:

• Chris Lamb:
• Mattia Rizzolo:
• Ricardo Gaviria:
jenkins.debian.net development Misc.

This week’s edition was written by Bernhard M. Wiedemann, Chris Lamb, Holger Levsen & reviewed by a bunch of Reproducible Builds folks on IRC & the mailing lists.

### Minkush Jain: Google Summer of Code 2018- Final Report

14 August, 2018 - 11:00

This is the summary of my work done during Google Summer of Code 2018 with Debian

What is Google Summer of Code?

Google Summer of Code is a global program focused on introducing students to open source software development. Students work on a 3-month programming project with an open source organization during their break from university.

As you can probably guess, there is a high demand for its selection as thousands of students apply for it every year. The program offers students real-world experience to build software along with collaboration with the community and other student developers.

Project Overview

This project aims at developing tools and packages which would simplify the process for new applicants in the open source community to get the required setup. It would consist of a GUI/Wizard with integrated scripts to setup various communication and development tools like PGP and SSH key, DNS, IRC, XMPP, mail filters along with Jekyll blog creation, mailing lists subscription, project planner, searching for developer meet-ups, source code scanner and much more! The project would be free and open source hosted on Salsa (Debian based Gitlab)

I created various scripts and packages for automating tasks and helping a user get started by managing contacts, emails, subscribe to developer’s lists, getting started with Github, IRC and more.

Mailing Lists Subscription

I made a script for fully automating the subscription to various Debian mailing lists. The script also automates its reply process as well to complete the procedure for a user.

It works for all ten important Debian mailing lists for a newcomer like ‘debian-outreach’, ‘debian-announce’, ‘debian-news’, ‘debian-devel-announce’ and more.

I also spent time refactoring the code with my mentors to make it work as a stand-alone script by adding utility functions and fixing the syntax.

The video demo of the script had also been added in my blog.

It inputs the email and automated reply-code received from @lists.debian.org from the user, and subscribes them to the mailing list.

For the application task, I also created a basic GUI for the program using PyQt.

The script uses requests library to send data on the website and submit it on their server.

Libraries used:

• Requests
• Smtp
• PyQt
• MIME handlers
Thunderbird Setup

This task involved writing program to simplify the setup procedure of Thunderbird for a new user.

I made a script which kills the Thunderbird process if it is running and then edits the ‘prefs.js’ configuration file to modify configuration settings of the software.

The program overwrites the existing settings by creating ‘user.js’ with cusotm settings. It gets implemented as soon Thunderbird is re-opened.

Also added the feature to extend the script to all profiles or a specific one which would be user’s choice.

Features:

• Examines system process to find if Thunderbird is running in background and kills it.

• Searches dynamically in user’s system to find the configuration file’s path.

• User can chose which profile should they allow to change.

• Modifies the default settings to accomplish the following:

• User’s v-card is automatically appended in mails and posts.
• Top-posting configuration has been setup by default.
• Plain-text mode made default for new mails.
• No sound and alerts for incoming mails

and some more…

Libraries used:

• Psutil
• Os
• Subprocess
Source Code Scanner

I created a program to analyse user’s project directory to find which Programming Language they are proficient.

The script would help them realise which language and skill they prefer by finding the percentage of each language present.

It scans through all the file extensions like (.py, .java, .cpp) which are stored in a separate file and examines them to display the total number of lines and percentage of each language present in the directory.

The script uses Pygount library to scan all folders for source code files. It uses pygments syntax highlighting package to analyse the source code and can examine any language.

Libraries used:

• os (operating system interfaces)
• pygount

I added a Python script with all common file extensions included in it.

The script could be excecuted easily by entering the directory’s path by the user.

Research:

• Searched Python’s glob library to iterate through home directory.

• Using Github Linguists library to analyse code.

• Pygments library to search languages through syntax highlighter.

This is a working demo of the script. The user can enter their project’s directory and the script will analyse it to publish the result:

Your browser does not support the video tag.

CardBook Debian Package

For managing contacts/calendar for a user, Thunderbird extensions need to be installed and setup.

I created a Debian package for CardBook, a Thunderbird add on for managing contact using vCard and CardDAV standards.

I have written a blog here, explaining the entire development process , as well as using tools to make it comply to Debian standards.

Creating a Debian package from scratch, involved a lot of learning from resources and wiki pages.

I created the package using debhelper commands, and included the CardBook extension inside the package. I modified the binary package files like changes, control, rules, copyright for its installation.

I also created a Local Debian Repository for testing the package.

I created four updated versions of the package, which are present in the changelog.

I used Lintian tool to check for bugs, packaging errors and policy violations. I spent some time to remove all the Lintian errors in 1.3.0 version of the package.

I took help from mentors on IRC (#debian-mentors) and mailing lists during the packaging process. Finally, I added mozilla-devscripts to build the package using xul-ext architecture.

I updated the ‘watch’ file to automatically pull tags from upstream.

I mailed Carsten Schoenert, Debian Maintainer of Thunderbird and Lightning package, who helped me a lot along with my mentor, Daniel during the packaging process.

CardBook Debian Package: https://salsa.debian.org/minkush-guest/CardBook/tree/debian-package

Blog: http://minkush.me/cardbook-debian-package/

I created and setup my public and private GPG key using GnuPg and added them on mentors.debian.net.

I signed the package files including ‘.changes’, ‘.dsc’, ‘.deb’ using ‘dpkg-sig’ and ‘debsign’ and then verified them with my keys.

Finally, the package has been uploaded on mentors.debian.net using dput HTTPS method.

This is video demo showing the package’s installation inside Thunderbird. As it can be clearly observed, CardBook was successfully installed as a Thunderbird add-on:

Your browser does not support the video tag.

IRC Setup

One of most challenging tasks for a new contributor is getting started with Internet Relay Protocol chat and its setup.

I made an IRC Python bot to overcome the initial setup required. The script uses socket programming to connect to freenode server and send data.

Features:

*It registers new nickname for the user on Freenode server by sending user’s credentials to Nickserv. An email is received on successful registration of the nickname.

• The script checks if the entered email is invalid or the nickname chosen by the user is already registered on the server. If this is case, the server disconnects and prompts the user again for re-entering the details.

• It does identification for the nickname on the server before joining any channel by messaging ‘nickserv’ , if the nick registration is successful.

• It displays the list of all available ‘#debian’ channels live on the server with minimum 30 members.

• The script connects and joins with any IRC channel entered by the user and displays the live chat occurring on the channel.

• Implements ping-pong protocol to keep the server live. This makes sure that the connection is not lost during the operation and simulate human interaction with the server by responding to its pings.

• It continuously prints all data received from the server after decoding it with UTF-8 and closes the server after the operation is done.

Libraries:

Socket library

This is a working video demo for the IRC script.

To display one of it features, I have entered my already registered nickname (Mjain) to test it. It analyses server response to ask the user to again enter it.

Your browser does not support the video tag.

Salsa and Github Registration

I created scripts using Selenium Web Driver to automate new account creation on Salsa and Github.

This task would provide a quick-start for a user to get started to contribute to Open source by registering account on web-hosting clients for version control.

I learned Selenium automation techniques in Python to accomplish it. It uses web driver to control it through automated scripts. (Tested with geckodriver for Firefox)

I used Pytest to write test scripts for both the programs which finds whether the account was successfully created or not.

Libraries used:

• Selenium Web driver
• Geckodriver
• Pytest
Extract Mail Data

The aim for this task was to extract data from user’s email for ease of managing contacts.

I created a script to analyse user’s email and extract all Phone numbers present in it. The Program fetches all mails from the server using IMAP and decodes it in using UTF-8 to obtain it in readable format.

Features:

• Easy login on mail server through user’s credentials

• Obtains the date and time for all mails

• Option to iterate through all or unseen mails

• Extracts the Sender, Receiver, Subject and body of the email.

It scans the body of each message to look for phone numbers using python-phonenumbers and stores all of them along with details in a text file in external system.

Features:

• Converts all the telephone numbers in Standard International Format E164 (adds country code if not already present)

• Using geocoder to find the location of the phone numbers

• Also extracts the Carrier name and Timezone details for all the phone numbers.

• Saves all this data along with sender’s details in a file and also displays it on the terminal.

Libraries used:

• Imaplib
• IMAPClient
• Python port of libphonenumbers (phoneumbers)

The original libphonenumbers is a popular Google’s library for parsing, formatting, and validating international phone numbers.

I also researched Telify Mozilla plugin for a similar algorithm to have click-to-save phone numbers.

This is a working video demo for the script:

Your browser does not support the video tag.

HTTP Post Salsa Registration

I have created another script to automate the process of new account creation on Salsa using HTTP Post.

The script uses requests library to send HTTP requests on the website and send data in forms.

I used Beautiful Soup 4 library to parse and navigate HTML and XML data inside the URL and get tokens and form fields within the website.

The script checks for password mismatch and duplicate usernames and creates a new account instantly.

Libraries used:

• Requests
• Beautiful Soup

This is a working demo for the script. An email is received from Salsa which confirms that new account has been created:

Your browser does not support the video tag.

Mail Filters Setup

One of the problems faced by a developer is filtering hundreds of unnecessary mails incoming from mailing lists, promotion websites, and spam.

Email client does the job to certain extent, still many emails are left which need to be sorted into categories.

For this purpose, I created a script which examines user’s mailbox and filters mails into labels and folders in Gmail, by creating them. The script uses IMAP to fetch mails from the server.

Libraries used:

• IMAP library
• Email
• Os
• pprint
Weekly Reports Acknowledgment:

I would like to thank Debian and Google for giving me this opportunity to work on this project.

I am grateful to my mentors Daniel Pocock, Urvika Gola, Jaminy Prabharan and Sanyam Khurana for their constant help throughout GSoC.

Finally, this journey wouldn’t have been completed without my friends and family who supported me.

Special Mention

I would like to thank Carsten Schönert and Andrey Rahmatullin for their help with Debian packaging.

### Athos Ribeiro: Google Summer of Code 2018 Final Report: Automatic Builds with Clang using Open Build Service

14 August, 2018 - 10:20
Project Overview

Debian package builds with Clang were performed from time to time through massive rebuilds of the Debian archive on AWS. The results of these builds are published on clang.debian.net. This summer project aimed to automate Debian archive clang rebuilds by substituting the current clang builds in clang.debian.net with Open Build System (OBS) builds.

Our final product consists of a repository with salt states to deploy an OBS instance which triggers Clang builds of Debian Unstable packages as soon as they get uploaded by their maintainers.

An instance of our clang builder is hosted at irill8.siege.inria.fr and the Clang builds triggered so far can be seen here.

My contributions

The major contribution for the summer is our running OBS instance at irill8.siege.inria.fr.

Salt states to deploy our OBS intance

We created a series of Salt states to deploy and configure our OBS instance. The states for local deploy and development are available at github.com/athos-ribeiro/salt-obs.

Commits

The commits above were condensed and submitted as a Pull Request to the project’s mentor github account, with production deployment configurations.

OBS Source Service to make gcc/clang binary substitutions

To perform deb packages Clang builds, we substitute GCC binaries with the Clang binaries in the builders chroot during build time. To do that, we use the OBS Source Services feature, which requires a package (which performs the desired task) to be available to the target OBS project.

Our obs-service-clang-build package is hosted at github.com/athos-ribeiro/obs-service-clang-build.

Commits Monitor Debian Unstable archive and trigger clang builds for newly uploaded packages

We also use two scripts to monitor the debian-devel-changes mailing lists, watching for new package uploads in Debian Unstable, and trigger Clang builds in our OBS instance whenever a new upload is accepted.

Our scripts to monitor the debian-devel-changes mailing list and trigger Clang builds in our OBS instance are available at github.com/athos-ribeiro/obs-trigger-sid-builds.

Commits OBS documentation contributions

During the summer, most of my work was to read OBS documentation and code to understand how to trigger Debian Unstable builds in OBS and how to perform customized Clang builds (replacing GCC).

My contributions Pending PRs

We want to change the Clang build links at tracker.debian.org/pkg/firefox To do so, we must change Debian distro-tracker to point to our OBS instance. As of the time this post was written, we have an open PR in distro-tracker to change the URLs:

Reports written through the summer Adding new workers to the OBS instance

To configure new workers to our current OBS instance, hosted at irill8.siege.inria.fr, just set new salt slaves and provision them with obs-common and obs-worker, from github.com/opencollab/llvm-slave-salt. This should be done in the top.sls file.

Future work
• We want to extend our OBS instance with more projects to provide Upstream LLVM packages to Debian and derived distributions.
• More automation is needed in our salt states. For instance, we may want to automate SSL certificates generation using Let’s encrypt.
• During the summer, several issues were detected in Debian Stable OBS packages. We want to work closer to OBS packages to help improving OBS packages and OBS itself.

Working with Debian during the summer was an interesting experience. I did not expect to have so many problems as I did (see reports) with the OBS packages. This problems were turned into hours of debuging and reading Perl code in order to understand how OBS processes comunicate and trigger new builds. I also learned more about Debian packaging, salt and vagrant. I do expect to keep working with OBS and help maintaining the service we deployed during the summer. There’s still a lot of room for improvements and it is easy to see how the project benefits FLOSS communities.

### Iustin Pop: Eiger Bike Challenge 2018

14 August, 2018 - 04:50

So… another “fun” ride. Probably the most fun ever, both subjectively and in terms of Strava’s relative effort level. And that despite it being the “short” version of the race (55km/2’500m ascent vs. 88km/3’900m).

It all started very nicely. About five weeks ago, I started the Sufferfest climbing plan, and together with some extra cross-training, I was going very strong, feeling great and seeing my fitness increasing constantly. I was quite looking forward to my first time at this race.

Then, two weeks ago, after already having registered, family gets sick, then I get sick—just a cold, but with a persistent cough that has not gone away even after two weeks. The week I got sick my training plan went haywire (it was supposed to be the last heavy week), and the week of the race itself I was only half-recovered so I only did a couple of workouts.

With two days before the race, I was still undecided whether to actually try to do it or not. Weather was quite cold, which was on the good side (I was even a bit worried about too cold in the morning), then it turned to the better.

So, what do I got to lose? I went to the start of the 55km version. As to length, this is on the easy side. But it does have 2’500m of ascent, which is a lot for me for such a short ride. I’ve done this amount of ascent before—2017 BerGiBike, long route—but that was “spread” over 88km of distance and in lower temperatures and with quite a few kilograms fewer (on my body, not on the bike), and still killed me.

The race starts. Ten minutes in, 100m gained; by 18 minutes, 200m already. By 1h45m I’m done with the first 1’000m of ascent, and at this time I’m still on the bike. But I was also near the end of my endurance reserve, and even worse, at around 1h30m in, the sun was finally high enough in the sky to start shining on my and temperature went from 7-8°C to 16°. I pass Grosse Scheidegg on the bike, a somewhat flat 5k segment follows to the First station, but this flat segment still has around 300m of ascent, with one portion that VeloViewer says is around 18% grade. After pedalling one minute at this grade, I give up, get off the bike, and start pushing.

And once this mental barrier of “I can bike the whole race” is gone, it’s so much easier to think “yeah, this looks steep, let’s get off and push” even though one might still have enough reserves to bike uphill. In the end, what’s the difference between biking at 5km/h and pushing at 4.0-4.3km/h? Not much, and heart rate data confirms it.

So, after biking all the way through the first 1’100m of ascent, the remainder 1’400m were probably half-biking, half-pushing. And that might still be a bit generous. Temperatures went all the way up to 32.9°C at one point, but went back down a bit and stabilised at around 25°. Min/Avg/Max overall were 7°/19°/33° - this is not my ideal weather, for sure.

Other fun things:

• Average (virtual) power over time as computed by VeloViewer went from 258W at 30m, to 230W at the end of first hour, 207W at 2h, 164W at 4h, and all the way down to 148W at the end of the race.
• The brakes faded enough on the first long descend that in one corner I had to half-way jump of the bike and stop it against the hill; I was much more careful later to avoid this, which lead to very slow going down gravel roads (25-30km/h, not more); I need to fix this ASAP.
• By last third of the race, I was tired enough that even taking a 2 minutes break didn’t relax my heart rate, and I was only able to push the bike uphill at ~3km/h.
• The steepest part of the race (a couple of hundred meters at 22-24%) was also in the hottest temperature (33°).
• At one point, there was a sign saying “Warning, ahead 2.5km uphill with 300m altitude gain”; I read that as “slowly pushing the bike for 2.5km”, and that was true enough.
• In the last third of the race, there was a person going around the same speed as me (in the sense that we were passing each other again and again, neither gaining significantly). But he was biking uphill! Not much faster than my push, but still biking! Hat off, sir.
• My coughing bothered me a lot (painful coughing) in the first two thirds, by the end of the race it was gone (now it’s back, just much better than before the race).
• I met someone while pushing and we went together for close to two hours (on and off the bike), I think; lots of interesting conversation, especially as pushing is very monotonous…
• At the end of the race (really, after the finish point), I was “ok, now what?” Brain was very confused that more pushing is not needed, especially as the race finishes with 77m of ascent.
• BerGiBike 2017 (which I didn’t write about, apparently) was exactly the same recorded ascent to the meter: 2’506, which is a fun coincidence ☺

The route itself is not the nicest one I’ve done at a race. Or rather, the views are spectacular, but a lot of the descent is on gravel or even asphalt roads, and the single-trails are rare and on the short side. And a large part of the difficult descent are difficult enough that I skipped them, which in many other races didn’t happen to me. On the plus side, they had very good placements of the official photographers, I think one of the best setups I’ve seen (as to the number of spots and their positioning).

And final fun thing: I was not the last! Neither overall nor in my age category:

• In my age category, I was place 129 our of 131 finishers, and there were another six DNF.
• Overall (55km men), I was 391 out of 396 finishers, plus 17 DNF.

So, given my expectations for the race—I only wanted to finish—this was a good result. Grand questions:

• How much did my sickness affect me? Especially as lung capacity is involved, and this being at between 1’000 and 2’000m altitude, when I do my training at below 500?
• How much more could I have pushed the bike? E.g. could I push all above 10%, but bike the rest? What’s the strategy when some short bits are 20%? Or when there’s a long one at ~12%?
• If I had an actual power meter, could I do much better by staying below my FTP, or below 90% FTP at all times? I tried to be careful with heart rate, but coupled with temperature increase this didn’t go as well as I thought it would.
• My average overall speed was 8.5km/h. First in 55km category was 19.72km/h. In my age category and non-licensed, first one was 18.5km/h. How, as in how much training/how much willpower does that take?
• Even better, in the 88km and my age category, first placed speed was 16.87km/h, finishing this longer route more than one hour faster than me. Fun! But how?

In any case, at my current weight/fitness level, I know what my next race profile will be. I know I can bike more than one thousand meters of altitude in a single long (10km) uphill, so that’s where I should aim at. Or not?

Closing with one picture to show how the views on the route are:

Yeah, that’s me ☺

And with that, looking forward to the next trial, whatever it will be!

### Thomas Goirand: Official Debian testing OpenStack image news

13 August, 2018 - 17:46

A few things happened to the testing image, thanks to Steve McIntire, myself, and … some debconf18 foo!

• The buster/testing image wasn’t generated since last April, this is now fixed. Thanks to Steve for it.
• The datasource_list is now correct, in both the Stretch and Testing image (previously, cloustack was set too early in the list, which made the image wait 120 seconds for a data source which wasn’t available if booting on OpenStack).
• The buster/testing image is now using the new package linux-image-cloud-amd64. This made the qcow file shrink from 614 MB to 493 MB. Unfortunately, we don’t have a matching arm64 cloud kernel image yet, but it’s still nice to have this for the amd64 arch.

Please use the new images, and report any issue or suggestion against the openstack-debian-images package.

### Petter Reinholdtsen: A bit more on privacy respecting health monitor / fitness tracker

13 August, 2018 - 14:00

A few days ago, I wondered if there are any privacy respecting health monitors and/or fitness trackers available for sale these days. I would like to buy one, but do not want to share my personal data with strangers, nor be forced to have a mobile phone to get data out of the unit. I've received some ideas, and would like to share them with you. One interesting data point was a pointer to a Free Software app for Android named Gadgetbridge. It provide cloudless collection and storing of data from a variety of trackers. Its list of supported devices is a good indicator for units where the protocol is fairly open, as it is obviously being handled by Free Software. Other units are reportedly encrypting the collected information with their own public key, making sure only the vendor cloud service is able to extract data from the unit. The people contacting me about it said they were using Amazfit Bip and Xiaomi Band 3.

I also got a suggestion to look at some of the units from Garmin. I was told their GPS watches can be connected via USB and show up as a USB storage device with Garmin FIT files containing the collected measurements. While proprietary, FIT files apparently can be read at least by GPSBabel and the GpxPod Nextcloud app. It is unclear to me if they can read step count and heart rate data. The person I talked to was using a Garmin Garmin Forerunner 935, which is a fairly expensive unit. I doubt it is worth it for a unit where the vendor clearly is trying its best to move from open to closed systems. I still remember when Garmin dropped NMEA support in its GPSes.

A final idea was to build ones own unit, perhaps by basing it on a wearable hardware platforms like the Flora Geo Watch. Sound like fun, but I had more money than time to spend on the topic, so I suspect it will have to wait for another time.

While I was working on tracking down links, I came across an inspiring TED talk by Dave Debronkart about being a e-patient, and discovered the web site Participatory Medicine. If you too want to track your own health and fitness without having information about your private life floating around on computers owned by others, I recommend checking it out.

As usual, if you use Bitcoin and want to show your support of my activities, please send Bitcoin donations to my address 15oWEoG9dUPovwmUL9KWAnYRtNJEkP1u1b.

### Shashank Kumar: Google Summer of Code 2018 with Debian - Final Report

13 August, 2018 - 01:30

Three weeks of Google Summer of Code went off to be life-changing for me. This here is the summary of my work which also serves as my Final Report of Google Summer of Code 2018.

Preperations

My project is Wizard/GUI helping students/interns apply and get started and the final application is named New Contributor Wizard. It originated as the brainchild and Project Idea of Daniel Pocock for GSoC 2018 under Debian. I prepared the application task for the same and shared my journey through Open Source till GSoC 2018 in two of my blogs, From Preparations to Debian to Proposal and The Application Task and Results.

Project Overview

New Contributor Wizard is a GUI application build to help new contributors get started with Open Source. It was an idea to bring together all the Tools and Tutorials necessary for a person to learn and start contributing to Open Source. The application contains different courseware sections like Communication, Version Control System etc. and within each section, there are respective Tools and Tutorials.

A Tool is an up and running service right inside the application which can perform tasks to help the user understand the concepts. For example, encrypting a message using the primary key, decrypting the encrypted message using the private key, and so on, these tools can help the user better understand the concepts of encryption.

A tutorial is comprised of lessons which contain text, images, questions and code snippets. It is a comprehensive guide for a particular concept. For example, Encryption 101, How to use git?, What is a mailing list? and so on.

In addition to providing the Tools and Tutorials, this application is build to be progressive. One can easily contribute new Tutorials by just creating a JSON file, the process of which is documented in the project repository itself. Similarly, a documentation for contributing Tools is present as well.

Project Details
Programming Language and Tools

For Development

For Testing

Environment

• Pipenv for Python Virtual Environment
• Debian 9 for Project Development and testing

Version Control System

For pinned dependencies and sub-dependencies one can have a look at the Pipfile and Pipfile.lock

My Contributions

The project was just an idea before GSoC and I had to make all the decisions for the implementation with the help of mentors whether it was Design or Architecture of the application. Below is the list of my contributions in shape of merge requests and every merge request contains UI, application logic, tests, and documentation. My contributions can also be seen in Changelog and Contribution Graph of the application.

Sign Up is the first screen a user is shown and asks for all the information required to create an account. It then takes the user to the Dashboard with all the courseware sections.

Merge request - Adds SignUp feature

Redmine Issue - Create SignUp Feature

Feature In Action (updated working of the feature)

Merge Request - Adds SignIn feature

Redmine Issue - Create SignIn Feature

Feature In Action (updated working of the feature)

Your browser does not support HTML5 video. Dashboard

The Dashboard is said to be the protagonist screen of the application. It contains all the courseware sessions and their respective Tools and Tutorials.

Merge Request - Adds Dashboard feature

Redmine Issue - Implementing Dashboard

Feature In Action (updated working of the feature)

Every courseware section can have respective Tools and Tutorials. To add Tools to a section I devised an architecture and implemented on Encryption to add 4 different Tools. They are:

• Create Key Pair
• Display and manage Key Pair
• Encrypt a message
• Decrypt a message

Merge Request - Adding encryption tools

Redmine Issue - Adding Encryption Tools

Feature In Action (updated working of the feature)

Similar to Tools, Tutorials can be found with respect to any courseware section. I have created a Tutorial Parser, which can take a JSON file and build GUI for the Tutorial easily without any coding required. This way folks can easily contribute Tutorials to the project. I added Encryption 101 Tutorial to showcase the use of Tutorial Parser.

Merge Request - Adding encryption tutorials

Redmine Issue - Adding Encryption Tutorials

Feature In Action (updated working of the feature)

Your browser does not support HTML5 video. Adding 'Invite Contributor' block to Tools and Tutorials

In order to invite the contributor to New Contributor Wizard, every Tools and Tutorials menu display an additional block by linking the project repository.

Merge Request - Inviting contributors

Redmine Issue - Inviting contributors to the project

Feature In Action (updated working of the feature)

One of the courseware section How To Use help the user understand about different sections of the application in order to get the best out of it.

Merge Request - Updating How To Use

Redmine Issue - Adding How To Use in the application

Feature In Action (updated working of the feature)

Your browser does not support HTML5 video. Adding description to all the modules

All the courseware sections or modules need a simple description to describe what the user will learn using it's Tutorials and Tools.

Merge Request - Description added to all the modules

Redmine Issue - Add a introduction/description to all the modules

Feature In Action (updated working of the feature)

This feature allows the abstraction of Tools and Tutorials architecture I mentioned earlier so that the Menu architecture can be used by any of the courseware sections following the DRY approach.

Redmine Issue - Adding Tutorial and Tools menu to all the modules

Tutorial Contribution Doc

A tutorial in the application can be added using just a JSON file. As mentioned earlier, it is made possible using the Tutorial Parser. A comprehensive ocumentation is added to help the users understand how they can contribute Tutorials to the application for the world to take advantage of.

Merge Request - Tutorial contribution docs

Redmine Issue - Add documentation for Tutorial development

Tools Contribution Doc

A tool in the application is build using Kivy lang and Python. A comprehensive documentation is added to the project in order for folks to contribute Tools for the world to take advantage of.

Merge Request - Tools contribution docs

Redmine Issue - Add documentation for Tools development

After having discussions with the mentors and a bit of research, GNU GPLv3 was finalized as the license for the project and has been added to the repository.

Sign Up feature is refactored to support different timezones from the user.

Merge Request - Allowing different timezones during signup

Redmine Issue - Allow different timezones

All other contributions

Here's a list of all the merge request I raised to develop a feature or fix an issue with the application - All merge request by Shashank Kumar

Here are all the issues/bug/features I created, resolved or was associated to on the Redmine - All the redmine issue associated to Shashank Kumar

To Do List Weekly Updates And Reports

These report were send daily to private mentors mail thread and weekly on Debian Outreach mailing list.

Talk Delivered On My GSoC Project

On 12th August 2018, I gave a talk on How my Google Summer of Code project can help bring new contributors to Open Source during a meetup in Hacker Space, Noida, India. Here are the slides I prepared for my talk and a collection of photographs of the event.

Summary

New Contributor Wizard is ready for the users who would like to get started with Open Source as well as to the folks who would like to contribute Tools and Tutorials to the application as well.

Acknowledgment

I would like to thank Google Summer of Code for giving me the opportunity of giving back to the community and Debian for selecting me for the project.

I would like to thank Daniel Pocock for his amazing blogs and ideas he comes up which end up inspiring students and result in a project like above.

I would like to thank Sanyam Khurana for constantly motivating me by reviewing every single line of code which I wrote to come up with the best solution to put in front of the community.

Thanks to all the loved ones who always believed in me and kept me motivated.

### Vasudev Kamath: SPAKE2 In Golang: Finite fields of Elliptic Curve

13 August, 2018 - 00:21

In my previous post I talked about elliptic curve basics and how the operations are done on elliptic curves, including the algebraic representation which is needed for computers. For usage in cryptography we need a elliptic curve group with some specified number of elements, that is what we called Finite Fields. We limit Elliptic Curve groups with some big prime number p. In this post I will try to briefly explain finite fields over elliptic curve.

Finite Fields

Finite field or also called Galois Field is a set with finite number of elements. An example we can give is integer modulo p where p is prime. Finite fields can be denoted as $$\mathbb Z/p, GF(p)$$ or $$\mathbb F_p$$.

Finite fields will have 2 operations addition and multiplications. These operations are closed, associative and commutative. There exists a unique identity element and inverse element for every element in the set.

Division operation in finite fields is defined as $$x / y = x \cdot y^{-1}$$, that is x multiplied by inverse of y. and substraction $$x - y$$ is defined in terms of addition as $$x + (-y)$$ which is x added by negation of y. Multiplicative inverse can be easily calculated using extended Euclidean algorithm which I've not understood yet myself as there were readily available library functions which does this for us. But I hear from Ramakrishnan that its very easy one.

Elliptic Curve in $$\mathbb F_p$$

Now we understood what is finite fields we now need to restrict our elliptic curves to the finite field. So our original definition of elliptic curve becomes slightly different, that is we will have modulo p to restrict the elements.

\begin{equation*} \begin{array}{rcl} \left\{(x, y) \in (\mathbb{F}_p)^2 \right. & \left. | \right. & \left. y^2 \equiv x^3 + ax + b \pmod{p}, \right. \\ & & \left. 4a^3 + 27b^2 \not\equiv 0 \pmod{p}\right\}\ \cup\ \left\{0\right\} \end{array} \end{equation*}

All our previous operations can now be written as follows

\begin{equation*} \begin{array}{rcl} x_R & = & (m^2 - x_P - x_Q) \bmod{p} \\ y_R & = & [y_P + m(x_R - x_P)] \bmod{p} \\ & = & [y_Q + m(x_R - x_Q)] \bmod{p} \end{array} \end{equation*}

Where slope, when $$P \neq Q$$

\begin{equation*} m = (y_P - y_Q)(x_P - x_Q)^{-1} \bmod{p} \end{equation*}

and when $$P = Q$$

\begin{equation*} m = (3 x_P^2 + a)(2 y_P)^{-1} \bmod{p} \end{equation*}

So now we need to know order of this finite field. Order of elliptic curve finite field can be defined as number of points in the finite field. Unlike integer modulo p where number of elements are 0 to p-1, in case of elliptic curve you need to count points from x to p-1. This counting will be $$O(p)$$. Given large p this will be hard problem. But there are faster algorithm to count order of group, which even I don't know much in detail :). But from my reference its called Schoof's algorithm.

Scalar Multiplication and Cyclic Group

When we consider scalar multiplication over elliptic curve finite fields, we discover a special property. Taking example from Andrea Corbellini's post, consider curve $$y^2 \equiv x^3 + 2x + 3 ( mod 97)$$ and point $$P = (3,6)$$. If we try calculating multiples of P

\begin{align*} 0P = 0 \\ 1P = (3,6) \\ 2P = (80,10) \\ 3P = (80,87) \\ 4P = (3, 91) \\ 5P = 0 \\ 6P = (3,6) \\ 7P = (80, 10) \\ 8P = (80, 87) \\ 9P = (3, 91) \\ ... \end{align*}

If you are wondering how to calculate above (I did at first). You need to use point addition formula from earlier post where P = Q with mod 97. So we observe that there are only 5 multiples of P and they are repeating cyclicly. we can write above points as

• $$5kP = 0P$$
• $$(5k + 1)P = 1P$$
• $$(5k + 2)P = 2P$$
• $$(5k + 3)P = 3P$$
• $$(5k + 4)P = 4P$$

Or simply we can write these as $$kP = (k mod 5)P$$. We also note that all these 5 Points are closed under addition. This means adding two multiples of P, we obtain a multiple of P and the set of multiples of P form cyclic subgroup

\begin{equation*} nP + mP = \underbrace{P + \cdots + P}_{n\ \text{times}} + \underbrace{P + \cdots + P}_{m\ \text{times}} = (n + m)P \end{equation*}

Cyclic subgroups are foundation of Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC).

Subgroup Order

Subgroup order tells how many points are really there in the subgroup. We can redefine the order of group in subgroup context as order of P is the smallest positive integer such that nP = 0. In above case if you see we have smallest n as 5 since 5P = 0. So order of subgroup above is 5, it contains 5 element.

Order of subgroup is linked to order of elliptic curve by Lagrange's Theorem which says the order of subgroup is divisor of order of parent group. Lagrange is another name which I had read in my college, but the algorithms were different.

From this we have following steps to find out the order of subgroup with base point P

1. Calculate the elliptic curve's order N using Schoof's algorithm.
2. Find out all divisors of N.
3. For every divisor of n, compute nP.
4. The smallest n such that nP = 0 is the order of subgroup N.

Note that its important to choose smallest divisor, not a random one. In above examples 5P, 10P, 15P all satisfy condition but order of subgroup is 5.

Finding Base Point

Far all above which is used in ECC, i.e. Group, subgroup and order we need a base point P to work with. So base point calculation is not done at the beginning but in the end i.e. first choose a order which looks good then look for subgroup order and finally find the suitable base point.

We learnt above that subgroup order is divisor of group order which is derived from Lagrange's Theorem. This term $$h = N/n$$ is actually called co-factor of the subgroup. Now why is this term co-factor important?. Without going into details, this co-factor is used to find generator for the subgroup as $$G = hP$$.

Conclusion

So now are you wondering why I went on such length to describe all these?. Well one thing I wanted to make some notes for myself because you can't find all these information in single place, another these topics we talked in my previous post and this point forms the domain parameters of Elliptic Curve Cryptography.

Domain parameters in ECC are the parameters which are known publicly to every one. Following are 6 parameters

• Prime p which is order of Finite field
• Co-efficients of curve a and b
• Base point $$\mathbb G$$ the generator which is the base point of curve that generates subgroup
• Order of subgroup n
• Co-factor h

So in short following is the domain parameters of ECC $$(p, a, b, G, n, h)$$

In my next post I will try to talk about the specific curve group which is used in SPAKE2 implementation called twisted Edwards curve and give a brief overview of SPAKE2 protocol.

### Steve McIntyre: DebConf in Taiwan!

12 August, 2018 - 22:11

So I'm slowly recovering from my yearly dose of full-on Debian! :-) DebConf is always fun, and this year in Hsinchu was no different. After so many years in the project, and so many DebConfs (13, I think!) it has become unmissable for me. It's more like a family gathering than a work meeting. In amongst the great talks and the fun hacking sessions, I love catching up with people. Whether it's Bdale telling me about his fun on-track exploits or Stuart sharing stories of life in an Australian university, it's awesome to meet up with good friends every year, old and new.

For once, I even managed to find time to work on items from my own TODO list during DebCamp and DebConf. Of course, I also got totally distracted helping people hacking on other things too! In no particular order, stuff I did included:

• Working with Holger and Wolfgang to get debian-edu netinst/USB images building using normal debian-cd infrastructure;
• Debugging build issues with our buster OpenStack images, fixing them and also pushing some fixes to Thomas for build-openstack-debian-image;
• Reviewing secure boot patches for Debian's GRUB packages;
• As an AM, helping two DD candidates working their way through NM;
• Monitoring and tweaking an archive rebuild I'm doing, testing building all of our packages for armhf using arm64 machines;
• Releasing new upstream and Debian versions of abcde, the CD ripping and encoding package;
• Helping to debug UEFI boot problems with Helen and Enrico;
• Hacking on MoinMoin, the wiki engine we use for wiki.debian.org;
• Engaging in lots of discussions about varying things: Arm ports, UEFI Secure Boot, Cloud images and more

I was involved in a lot of sessions this year, as normal. Lots of useful discussion about Ignoring Negativity in Debian, and of course lots of updates from various of the teams I'm working in: Arm porters, web team, Secure Boot. And even an impromptu debian-cd workshop.

I loved my time at the first DebConf in Asia (yay!), and I was yet again amazed at how well the DebConf volunteers made this big event work. I loved the genius idea of having a bar in the noisy hacklab, meaning that lubricated hacking continued into the evenings too. And (of course!) just about all of the conference was captured on video by our intrepid video team. That gives me a chance to catch up on the sessions I couldn't make it to, which is priceless.

So, despite all the stuff I got done in the 2 weeks my TODO list has still grown. But I'm continuing to work on stuff, energised again. See you in Curitiba next year!

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